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1NC T—Increase =/= create
A. Increase is direct growth not creating new programs
Random House Webster’s College Dictionary 96

Increase: 1) to make greater, as in number, size, strength, or quality; augent 2)to become greater, as in number, size, strength, or quality 3)to multiply by propagation 4)growth or augmentation in size, strength, quality 5)the act or process of increasing


b) Violation: the AFF creates a new program for needle exchange. They can’t use the previously banned NEP because they don’t lift the federal ban.
c) They should lose:
1. Limits—they justify teams creating any number of programs and increasing social services. This kills clash and debatability because the NEG doesn’t know what to expect.
2. FX is bad—creating a program is a pre-requisite to increase.
  1. destroys predictability- you force us to take a social service and research backwards to find all of the possible ways to fix it, which is an impossible research burden and would kill fairness
  2. You’re either T or you aren’t. Being effectually topical you force the judge to arbitrarily decide how topical you are, and that destroys the role of topicality in debate.
  3. De-justifies the resolution—by taking extra steps, they prove that the resolution is enough to increase social services

d) Evaluate T in a framework of competing interpretations; if we win that their interpretation is worse for debate, you vote them down. Reasonability is arbitrary and mandates judge intervention.


At- Hospitals
1. Alt causes to hospital overburden—immigrants. That’s 1AC Medical News 09.
2. SQ solves
a) Immigrants won’t strain hospitals
Clark, prof of Law at Loyola Law, 08
(Brietta Clark, Prof of Law, Loyola Law School. 2008 (“The Immigrant Health Care Narrative and What it Tells Us About the U.S. Health Care System.” 17 Ann. Health L. 229ZE))


Pro-access arguments that public health benefits are not a motivating factor for immigrants are also supported by the data on immigrants’ use of health services. Studies show that immigrants, especially unauthorized immigrants, underutilize healthcare benefits.'" Even legal immigrants and children of immigrants entitled to care tend to underutilize the healthcare system as a result of immigration·related benefit restrictions and enforcement policies."° Moreover, some data suggests that immigrants are much more likely to pay for their health care than citizens in many cases, undermining the view of immigrants as welfare abusers."° For example, although there are many reasons why immigrants may have trouble getting insurance and may need to rely on public benefits or assistance initially. data suggests that this reliance tends to be temporary and that "within a decade, new immigrants in Califomia moved up quickly to steadier jobs with more benefits, and the rates of uninsured immigrants dropped sharpIy.""° All of this underlying-motivation data is consistent with a trend that many scholars and immigrants’ rights groups have found to result from increased restrictions and stepped-up immigration enforcement. Illegal immigration continues and has even grown, despite the recent laws that make it increasingly difficult for unauthorized immigrants to live in the United States."° Illegal immigrants are still crossing the border, and they literally live as outlaws in hiding because these restrictionist policies have made life much harder for them. Many flock to urban areas where they can more easily "disappear" or blend in to society, while those in less urban areas try to avoid contact with others as much as possiblem These laws may deter immigrants from seeking certain kinds of benefits and keep them segregated in society, but they do not deter immigration decisions and they cannot deter immigrants’ need for care for injury or illness that is beyond their control.

b) Immigration inevitable
AP, 07
(Associated Press,
Calderón: Immigration is a natural phenomenon, 9/27/2007,
<http://www.tucsoncitizen.com/ daily/local/64282.php>)


PUERTO PEÑASCO, Son. - Mexican President Felipe Calderón told U.S. governors Thursday that immigration is an inevitable, natural phenomenon and he urged the U.S. Congress to approve reforms that would allow more Mexicans to work legally north of the border. Calderón demanded the United States respect "the right to work wherever one can make the greatest contribution." "Immigration is a natural phenomenon that is economically and socially inevitable," he told the meeting in this Sonora seaside resort town. In a rare acknowledgment of the costs of migration for Mexico, Calderón said his country "doesn't celebrate migration . . . our best people are the ones who go." Immigration and border security were among the top issues at the meeting, the 25th annual such event between Mexican and U.S. governors from states along the two countries' common border. Mexican officials were focused on stopping the illegal flow of U.S. weapons into Mexico and protesting expansion of U.S. border fencing. For the Americans, the drug trade, migration and border security topped the list. On Monday, the U.S. government announced plans to erect about 370 miles of fencig and 200 miles of vehicle barriers by the end of 2008. Tension over the fences - which have drawn criticism from environmentalists, land owners and politicians in both countries - surfaced at the meeting. "This is the great tragedy," said Carlos de la Parra, a participant in the conference's environmental panel, as he pointed to a map of proposed border fences separating nature reserves. Mentioning a list of wildlife that migrates across the border, Parra, of Mexico's Colegio de la Frontera, noted "these animals don't cross the border to shop. They do it out of necessity." California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, who has opposed the border fencing, praised Mexico and its cooperation with its northern neighbor.


1NC—Public Health
c) Immigrants solve the economy
Farrell, Economics Editor for Business Weekly, 02
(Christopher Farrell, Economics Editor for Business Weekly, April 26, 2002,
__http://www.businessweek.com/ bwdaily/dnflash/apr2002/ nf20020426_6091.htm__ Lexis)

Hold on, please. Policymakers should move cautiously when it comes to immigration. Its net economic benefits have been substantial in the U.S., especially in the increasingly integrated global economy. America's historic ability to absorb newcomers in its vast melting pot is a vital source of competitive advantage. Immigrants and their contributions, more than stock market investment or information technology, may well be the defining feature of the New Economy. Certainly, the numbers are stunning. From 1981 to 2000, more than 16.4 million people legally poured into the U.S. (at least 7 million to 8 million more illegal aliens managed to get in), a figure exceeding the great immigration wave of 1900 to 1914 (see table). The foreign-born now make up 11% of the U.S. population, twice the share of the 1970s. In the nation's fastest-growing cities, the overall populations of Hispanics and Asians grew by 72% and 69%, respectively. Almost all of the gain was driven by immigration. HIGH-TECH LYNCHPINS. Since 1995, the foreign-born have contributed fully one-third of household growth in the U.S., and these immigrants are avid homebuyers. Among Asians age 25 to 44, the homeownership rate rose from 32.9% in 1995 to 37% in 2000, according to the Joint Center for Housing Studies at Harvard University. The comparable figures for Hispanics are 28.9% and 31.2%. Many economists believe that immigrants play a dynamic role in the New Economy. More and more, America's high-tech industries, from semiconductors to biotechnology, depend on immigrant scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs to remain competitive. About half of foreign-born students who get their doctorate in science at an American university stay in the U.S. (see table). As of 1997, 21% of chemical engineers in the U.S. were foreign-born, as were 20% of computer scientists. Multinational corporations and export-oriented companies are highly dependent on immigrant managers and workers. Immigrants' links to their old countries are a boon to U.S. exports to such fast-growing regions as Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. ON THE MARGINS. The demand for less-skilled immigrants is also strong in an economy facing a long-term labor shortage. Those with less education are filling in the kinds of low-wage jobs that make a modern service economy run, such as in the hotel and restaurant industries. Over 15% of construction workers nationwide are immigrants.

3. They can’t access their hospital advantage—only 15% of AIDS cases are solved by NEP. That’s 1AC Lurie and Drucker 97. If they don’t solve the majority of AIDS cases, hospitals will still be overburdened.
4. Health care reform will pass—solves hospital crisis
Bloomberg, 7-25
<http://www.bloomberg.com/ apps/news?pid=20601087&sid= aIiiRyGaM.Os>
The top Senate Republican drafting health-care legislation and a leader of House Democrats balking at the plan said they don’t expect committee and floor-vote delays to keep a bill from passing this year. Charles Grassley, the ranking Republican on the Senate Finance Committee, said “it’s going to be difficult” for his panel to approve legislation in the next two weeks. Beyond that, the odds of Congress enacting an overhaul later this year are “very, very good,” the Iowa senator said in an interview with Bloomberg Television’s “Political Capital with Al Hunt,” airing this weekend. Representative Mike Ross of Arkansas, chairman of the health-care task force for the Blue Dog Coalition, about 50 self-described fiscally conservative House Democrats, said it would be a mistake for Speaker Nancy Pelosi to bring the measure to the chamber’s floor before lawmakers take their August recess. “I don’t think they have the votes,” Ross said in a separate “Political Capital” interview. By year’s end, “we will meet the president’s goal of passing meaningful and substantive health-care reform,” he also said.

AT—AIDS impact
1. Squo solves AIDS
a) Poverty causes potential test subjects
Dani Veracity, journalist for Natural News, 06
(Dani Veracity, journalist for Natural News, 3/7/06, <http://www.naturalnews.com/ 019193.html>)


During the Holocaust, the Nazis confined the marginalized sectors of society -- Jews (including children), gypsies, homosexuals, the mentally ill and the mentally retarded -- into camps that became human guinea pig-filled laboratories for IG Farben's experimental drug studies. Today, marginalized populations still make up a large portion of experimental drug test subjects; however, socioeconomic factors, rather than concentration camp authorities, make them more likely to sell their bodies to Big Pharma. It's no accident that SFBC, the largest experimental drug testing center in North America, is located in Miami. According to the
St. Petersburg Times, Miami-Dade County "is the only county in the country where more than half the residents are foreign-born." After immigrants come to Miami from countries like Cuba, Colombia, Haiti, Nicaragua, Jamaica, Argentina and Mexico, they need money, yet experience the employment limitations that little or no fluency in English, little education, unfamiliarity, prejudice and, in some cases, lack of a work permit brings. With few other options available, these immigrants find one of the few legal jobs that doesn't require any amount of English proficiency or education and may even accept forged social security cards: Professional guinea pig. Many immigrants participate in multiple, simultaneous drug studies. Combining these experimental drugs is a recipe for disaster "because researchers don't know how the different chemicals interact or what side effects the mix may have on a person," according to the Bloomberg article "Miami Test Center Lures Poor Immigrants as Human Guinea Pigs". However, given the fact that some studies only pay $25 per day, what else are the truly marginalized subjects supposed to do? "It's not the job I would choose, but financial circumstances require you to do it sometimes,'' Venezuelan immigrant Oscar Cabanerio told Bloomberg.

b) Big pharmaceuticals solve—investment
EFPIA, 2K
(European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Association, 2K, <http://www.efpia.org/2_ indust/pharmainnovation.pdf>)

Several responsible AIDS activists have become concerned that the attacks against the industry – including the intellectual property foundation of its drug development – threaten to discourage new investments, as survey data suggest that after a substantial rise through most of the past decade in the number of anti-retroviral drug compounds in development for the potential treatment and possible cure of HIV/AIDS, there has been a steady decline in the number over the past three years – corresponding to the period of growing attack on IP rights linked to AIDS medicines.

2. Cure in 6 years
DW, 08
Deutsche-Welle,
AIDS cure less than a decade away, expert says, 3/8/2008
When we look at the progress of the last four to six years and use it to extrapolate the future then we can imagine a cure. At the moment it's only a small step away. In 80 percent to 90 percent of the patients we treat with today's medicines, we do not see the virus, though when the treatment stops the virus comes back. In recent years there have been more medicines approved initially for very advanced patients. When we use these medicines with other standard medicines very soon after a patient has been infected then I think we have a good chance of developing a treatment that approaches a cure within seven to eight years. Data gathered in the past few years supports this with admittedly small sample groups showing that what used to be completely unimaginable is fundamentally possible.

AT—AIDS Impact
3. We’ve already cured people—test case in Germany
Schoofs, staffwriter for the WSJ, 08
Mark Schoofs, staffwriter for the WSJ,
A Doctor, a Mutation and a Potential Cure for AIDS, 2008,
<http://online.wsj.com/ article/SB122602394113507555. html>


Finally, he recommended standard second-line treatment: a bone marrow transplant -- but from a donor who had inherited the CCR5 mutation from both parents. Bone marrow is where immune-system cells are generated, so transplanting mutant bone-marrow cells would render the patient immune to HIV into perpetuity, at least in theory. There were a total of 80 compatible blood donors living in Germany. Luckily, on the 61st sample he tested, Dr. Hütter's colleague Daniel Nowak found one with the mutation from both parents. To prepare for the transplant, Dr. Hütter first administered a standard regimen of powerful drugs and radiation to kill the patient's own bone marrow cells and many immune-system cells. This procedure, lethal to many cells that harbor HIV, may have helped the treatment succeed. The transplant specialists ordered the patient to stop taking his AIDS drugs when they transfused the donor cells, because they feared the powerful drugs might undermine the cells' ability to survive in their new host. They planned to resume the drugs once HIV re-emerged in the blood. But it never did. Nearly two years later, standard tests haven't detected virus in his blood, or in the brain and rectal tissues where it often hides. The case was presented to scientists earlier this year at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. In September, the nonprofit Foundation for AIDS Research, or amFAR, convened a small scientific meeting on the case. Most researchers there believed some HIV still lurks in the patient but that it can't ignite a raging infection, most likely because its target cells are invulnerable mutants. The scientists agreed that the patient is "functionally cured."



1NC— Terrorism
1. SQ solves—demand for heroine is decreasing. That’s 1AC Interpol 07.
2. Terrorists don’t have WMD’s
Annette Schaper, Senior Research - Peace Research Institute Frankfurt and Physics Ph.D. ‘3
(http://www.unidir.ch/pdf/ articles/pdf-art1907.pdf)


It can be ruled out that a terrorist group has the capability to produce plutonium or HEU. At most, only a state with appropriate resources could carry out such an endeavour, and it is doubtful whether such a programme could be kept hidden for long. Large-scale nuclear plants are necessary, the procurement and operation of which could not be kept secret. All procedures for the enrichment of uranium or for plutonium reprocessing leave traces in the environment. In case of a suspicion in non-nuclear-weapon states, illicit activities could be discovered immediately as all plants are subject to IAEA safeguards. The production of uranium or plutonium is extraordinarily resource intensive, as can be illustrated by the fact that Iraq employed thousands of members of staff throughout the 1980s in order to clandestinely manufacture HEU. Nevertheless, only small amounts of HEU were produced. At that time, the IAEA inspections were less thorough and the extent of the production activities was only discovered after the Gulf War. As a result of this deception, IAEA safeguards have been strengthened and it is considered improbable that a similar case could go undiscovered today.

3. Incoherent—their Taylor 05 says terrorists in Colombia get half their funding from the US, but their impact card talks about prolif in the Middle East

1NC—Solvency
1. Alt causes—80% of people with HIV got it through unsafe sex. That’s 1AC Gafni 97.
2. Alt causes—drug treatment is critical to any HIV strategy
AA Council, 1AC author, 96
AA Council, Subcommittee on Harm Reduction, 1996 (AIDS Advisory Council the New York State Subcommittee on Harm Reduction 1996 http://www.health.state.ny.us/ diseases/aids/workgroups/aac/ docs/needleexchangeprograms. pdf)


In addition, harm reduction programs offering needle exchange serve as a bridge to drug treatment. Average monthly New York State enrollment in methadone and drug-free treatment programs in 1994 was under 54,000, 28 with programs functioning above 90% capacity. The number of drug treatment slots in the state has not changed significantly in the past 20 years. Expansion of drug treatment capability is critical to any strategy aimed at reducing both HIV infection and the health and social costs of injecting drug use independent of HIV. Although waiting lists for drug treatment are often still long, many drug users are not willing to enter drug treatment programs and many others relapse after treatment. Consistent access to sterile needles and syringes is a public health intervention that can substantially reduce HIV risk regardless of drug treatment availability or effectiveness. Recognizing the already costly and tragic consequences of high HIV infection rates among injecting drug users, [and] the inadequacy of existing drug treatment facilities, and the reality of some degree of continuing drug abuse regardless of treatment availability, public and professional support has been building for needle deregulation and syringe exchange as HIV prevention measures.

3. Alt causes—education, condoms and testing key
CDC, 1AC author, 05
(CDC, Center for Disease Control, “Syringe Exchange Programs” Report to Congress, December 2005
<http://www.cdc.gov/idu/facts/ aed_idu_syr.pdf>)


In addition to exchanging syringes, many SEPs provide a range of related prevention and care services that are vital to helping IDUs reduce their risks of acquiring and transmitting blood-borne viruses as well as maintain and improve their overall health. These services may include: • HIV/AIDS education and counseling; • condom distribution to prevent sexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); • referrals to substance abuse treatment and other medical and social services; • distribution of alcohol swabs to help prevent abscesses and other bacterial infections; • on-site HIV testing and counseling and crisis intervention; • screening for tuberculosis (TB), hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and other infections; and • primary medical services.

4. The plan is illegal—the Senate keeps the ban
Lillis, staffwriter for the Washington Independent, 7/31
Mike Lillis, staffwriter for the Washington Independent, 7/31/2009
<http://washingtonindependent. com/53339/congress-looks-to- lift-two-decade-ban-on- federal-needle-exchange-funds>


The proposal, which doesn’t earmark any funding for needle exchange programs, passed the House last Friday by a vote of 264 to 153. The Senate’s version of the Labor-HHS funding bill, which passed the Senate Appropriations Committee Thursday, retains the needle-funding ban. Needle exchange supporters on and off Capitol Hill are hoping to remove the geographic restrictions when the two chambers meet to hash out the differences between the two bills — a process that won’t arrive until September, at the earliest. In the eyes of needle exchange opponents, the longer the wait the better.


1NC Drug trade good—Colombia 1/3
Drug trade good.
1. Colombia
a) Drug trade key to Colombian econ
Science Direct, 98
Science Direct,
Colombia’s Income from the Drug Trade, 1998
<http://www.sciencedirect.com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi= B6VC6-3TSB4YX-7&_user=4257664& _coverDate=06%2F30%2F1998&_ rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_ sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_ acct=C000022698&_version=1&_ urlVersion=0&_userid=4257664& md5= 08a42ac77f318add04ee36dd72a8cb d4>


By many accounts, Colombia has been considered, together with Chile, as the most successful Latin American economy during the last two decades. While Colombia’s prudent macroeconomic management has been almost unanimously praised, some have suggested that this country’s relative economic success is closely associated to the fact that it has routinely appropriated huge amounts of resources through its involvement in the illegal drug trade. Furthermore, others have argued that the Colombian economy is so heavily dependent on money stemming from the drug trade that efforts from the international community in general, and the United States in particular, to convincingly involve Colombia in the “war against drugs” are futile. The purpose of this paper is to provide a firm quantitative basis for the analysis of the economic impact of the drug trade in Colombia. From the outset we acknowledge that the relevance of the drug business on Colombian society is severely underestimated by only looking at its direct economic relevance. After all, and even if the true economic dimension of drugs in Colombia is smaller than what is generally suggested both in the press and in political circles within the United States, it is still the case that the drug trade provides resources to a very small group of outlaws, with enormous power to corrupt the country’s social and political fabric. Put differently, even if one can provide a solid basis to the hypothesis that the Colombian economy is more than viable without the revenue from the drug trade, it is undeniable that drug money in the hands of a few groups involved in organized crime has, to say the least, severely crippled Colombia’s judicial system, corrupted many in law enforcement, and, as events surrounding the last presidential election suggest, contaminated the entire political process. In this paper we estimate a yearly series of net income received by Colombian residents from their involvement in the illicit drug trade. We use the most recent information regarding the production of cocaine, heroin and marijuana. In separate research (Steiner, 1996) we try to determine how much of this income is actually incorporated into the Colombian economy, and the mechanisms through which this incorporation takes place. The paper begins with a summary of some articles on the subject that, in spite of severe methodological shortages, have found their way into influential publications and helped create the perception that the Colombian economy has been affected-if not overrun-by illegal drugs in a way that is not supported by more rigorous research. We review the latter in some detail.


1NC Drug trade good—Colombia 2/3
b) Good econ key to stop social instability
Rossiasco, post-graduate in economics, 2K
Paula Andrea Rossiasco is currently doing post-graduate studies in economics at the National University in Bogotá,
Colombia, the economic survivor//, July 2, 2K< http://colombiajournal.org/ colombia16.htm>


It is a country that has the misfortune of being a producer of high quality marijuana and the purest cocaine in the world. This has resulted, for obvious reasons, in a “narcotics industry” that, besides having immense social inequalities that have motivated guerrilla groups of varying ideologies, has resulted in Colombia being one of the most corrupt countries in the world. Furthermore, the lack of an education-based social structure does not offer much hope that this situation will change in the foreseeable future. Colombia is a country very susceptible to social problems and these problems do not permit the creation of an environment that is appealing to the international investment community; thereby, impeding major growth and increased stability. However, Colombia has not suffered from hyperinflation or massive currency devaluations. On the contrary, it has been the only Latin American country with moderate levels of inflation (historically, average levels of approximately 25%) and devaluation, which has permitted it to be competitive on the world level. Colombian exports to the rest of the world, principally the United States and the Community of Andean Nations, have permitted the country to survive the economic crisis and to actually recuperate, allowing Colombia to endure a critical social situation and further show its stability in economic matters. In the near future, Colombia will have to confront two principal problems. Firstly, to counteract investor uncertainty caused by an inconsistent peace process that needs to offer a reasonable resolution to the violence. In other words, a real and enduring peace that creates the necessary confidence in the international community that will result in a reduction of the fiscal deficit and attract major levels of foreign productive investment. Secondly, Colombia needs to create focused mediums that improve the distribution of the national income and riches in order to offer better opportunities to all Colombians that will result in the growth of human capital and achieve a high, sustained and more equal development.

c) Colombian instability spills over
Millett 02
Richard L. Millett, Oct. 2002. [Strategic Studies Institute, Colombia’s Conflicts: The Spillover Effects of a Wider War]


In today’s global village there is no such thing as a purely national crisis. Every conflict has spillover effects, ranging from trade disruptions to refugee flows to violent clashes. In the past it was common for nations to believe that promoting conflict in neighboring states could somehow enhance their security, but in the 21st century it has become increasingly obvious that conflicts in one nation constitute a security threat to all who share common borders. Today, it is more often the weakness rather than the strength of states which threatens to disrupt the search for peace and stability. Compounding the problem is what Ambassador Clovis Maksoud of American University has described as “the CNNization of the world.” A globalized media communications network ensures that violent conflicts almost anywhere are instantly communicated to neighboring nations, often in a manner designed to maximize shock and fear. Popular apprehensions are magnified, increasing political pressures for governments to respond to the situation, in the process inextricably mixing political and security concerns. The current conflicts in Colombia and their impact on and the responses by Colombia’s neighbors present a graphic example of this problem. Colombian scholar Juan Gabriel Tokatlian noted that Colombia has “become an exporter of insecurity . . ., a source of governmental insecurity and prospective danger.”1 Colombia’s former Defense Minister, Rafael Pardo, echoed Tokatlian’s view, adding that the conflict was “boiling over” as “guerrillas kidnap Venezuelans and Ecuadorians, the paramilitaries smuggle weapons from bases along the Panamanian border; and hundreds of citizens from dozens of foreign countries are taken hostage annually.” As a result, Pardo concluded, “Colombia has become a serious security threat not only to the Andean region, but to the broader hemisphere as well.


1NC Drug trade good—Colombia 3/3
d) Hurts global econ
Ellis, 04
R. Evan Ellis, Feb. 2004. [Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE 23(1), The Impact of Instability in Latin America, p. 187-93]


In the near term, the implied spread of violence, economic malaise, and political chaos across the Americas may significantly impair the standard of living of the people of the Americas. From December 2002 through February 2003, the national strike in Venezuela paralyzed oil exports from that country. Similarly, guerillas attacking Caño-Limon-Coveñas pipeline and the Ocensa pipeline in the central Magdalena valley have reduced the flow of oil and associated revenues in Colombia [45]. Even Ecuador’s new oil pipeline has become vulnerable to guerrilla activity in the proximity of its border with Colombia. In addition to oil, the global economy relies on a number of raw materials and basic goods exported from the region. Although from a U.S. perspective, a disruption in any one source of supply can be circumvented, the economic impact of the Americas plunged into violence and disorder could be greatly harm U.S. trade and economic growth. The economic and financial collapse of countries, such as we saw in Argentina, could cut off international lending to the defaulting countries and depress such lending for the region in general. Because of currency losses and poor returns, companies would continue to be less willing to invest in the region. Because of the threat to personnel, as seen in Colombia, businesses become increasingly reluctant to put their personnel in the affected country. The economic malaise, the withdraw of foreign investment, and the withdraw of the physical presence of foreign representatives could help to generate a new economic nationalism in the region, driven by the perception that international capital flows and foreign investment have helped to produce the economic collapse.


e) Nuke war
Mead 92
Walter Russell Mead, Henry A. Kissinger Senior Fellow for U.S. Foreign Policy at the Council on Foreign Relations, Summer 1992, New Perspectives Quarterly [lexis]

Hundreds of millions - billions - of people have pinned their hopes on the international market economy. They and their leaders have embraced market principles -- and drawn closer to the west – because they believe that our system can work for them. But what if it can't? What if the global economy stagnates – or even shrinks? In that case, we will face a new period of international conflict: South against North, rich against poor. Russia, China, India - These countries with their billions of people and their nuclear weapons will pose a much greater danger to world order than Germany and Japan did in the 30s.


Health Care – Politics (same as generic)
specific link:

Republicans hate the plan—the bill only passed the House because Obey watered it down
Lillis, staffwriter for the Washington Independent, 7/31
Mike Lillis, staffwriter for the Washington Independent, 7/31/2009
<http://washingtonindependent. com/53339/congress-looks-to- lift-two-decade-ban-on- federal-needle-exchange-funds>


When the House of Representatives last week passed legislation lifting a 21-year-old prohibition on federal funding for needle exchange programs, some ban critics cheered the move as a long step toward curbing the spread of blood-borne diseases like HIV. Yet the proposal moving through Congress, according to many health and human rights advocates, has been diluted to the point that it won’t help the same urban areas most afflicted by those illnesses. “It’s too restrictive,” said Allan Clear, executive director of the Harm Reduction Coalition, an advocacy group. “You couldn’t open a program in Washington, D.C. — or most any urban area — with these restrictions.” That’s because the House bill, while repealing the ban on federal money for needle exchanges, also prohibits such programs from operating within 1,000 feet of schools, daycare centers and other areas where children are likely to congregate. The sponsor of the 1,000-foot stipulation, House Appropriations Chairman David Obey (D-Wis.), included the restriction, not because he supports it, but to appease conservative critics who might have killed the entire provision otherwise. Yet needle exchange supporters argue that the geographic restraints are so expansive that they’ll neuter most benefits that would come with allowing federal funding of clean-needle programs.“As a practical matter, you won’t be able to have needle exchange in the city,” said Rebecca Schleifer, advocate for the health and human rights division at Human Rights Watch. “There are schools and daycare centers everywhere.” The restrictions, she added, make the bill “meaningless as a practical matter, even if it’s important as a symbolic matter.”


States CP 1NC
Text: The 50 states and all relevant territories should increase programs that distribute condoms and deregulate laws that forbid pharmacies from selling over-the-counter syringes
States can get around federal law—Connecticut was successful
Knol, online encyclopedia, 1AC author, 08
(Knol.com, an online encyclopedia resource, written by Lina “Legal Issues Surrounding Syringe Exchange Programs” July 28 2008 http://knol.google.com/k/lina/ legal-issues-surrounding- syringe/18lnh961rb830/6#)


Another barrier to sterile syringe access are pharmacy regulations that require that intended buyers demonstrate a legitimate medical or legal purpose for the purchase of syringes, and that pharmacies keep detailed records of this information and require proof of identification from each buyer. Many states also have syringe prescription laws, which regulate the sale and possession of hypodermic needles by requiring a doctor's prescription for the purchase or possession of a syringe. Syringe prescription laws have at least as much of an impact as pharmacy regulations, and many states, including California, have both kinds of laws in place. Although most states have laws on their books that effectively ban needle exchanges by creating laws against "drug paraphernalia," many states and municipalities have found creative ways around these laws. The most popular method in recent years has been to attack or amend the syringe prescription laws to allow the deregulation of syringe sales. This has the effect of not giving the public the impression of federal endorsement of syringe exchange programs, while still allowing intravenous drug users access to sterile syringes. In 1992, Connecticut became the first state to deregulate and allow over-the-counter purchase of syringes at pharmacies.__27__ The move was an unprecedented success. In the first year of deregulation, syringe sharing was reduced by 40%, street purchase of syringes dropped by 62% and police incidents of needle stick dropped by 66%.__28__

Condoms minimize risk of AIDS
Center for AIDS Intervention Research, Science Direct, 98
Center for AIDS Intervention Research, Science direct, 6/9/1998
<http://www.sciencedirect.com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi= B6VBF-3SWVHNF-4&_user=4257664& _rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_ sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_ searchStrId=968347864&_ rerunOrigin=scholar.google&_ acct=C000022698&_version=1&_ urlVersion=0&_userid=4257664& md5= 62ae9ef4e2590e55ca78b8933538d8 6a#m4.cor*>


The consistent use of latex condoms continues to be advocated for primary prevention of HIV infection despite limited quantitative evidence regarding the effectiveness of condoms in blocking the sexual transmission of HIV. Although recent meta-analyses of condom effectiveness suggest that condoms are 60 to 70% effective when used for HIV prophylaxis, these studies do not isolate consistent condom use, and therefore provide only a lower bound on the true effectiveness of correct and consistent condom use. A reexamination of HIV seroconversion studies suggests that condoms are 90 to 95% effective when used consistently, i.e. consistent condom users are 10 to 20 times less likely to become infected when exposed to the virus than are inconsistent or non-users. Similar results are obtained utilizing model-based estimation techniques, which indicate that condoms decrease the per-contact probability of male-to-female transmission of HIV by about 95%. Though imperfect, condoms provide substantial protection against HIV infection. Condom promotion therefore remains an important international priority in the fight against AIDS.