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NEG STRAT – for BQ Lee/Surti (Round 2)
OFF 1 - Topicality – Jobs =/= Social Services
  1. Interpretation : Social Services are
Business Dicitonary.com
http://www.businessdictionary. com/definition/social- services.html
Benefits and facilities such as education, food subsidies, health care, and subsidized housing provided by a government to improve the life and living conditions of the children, disabled, the elderly, and the poor in the national community.
  1. Violation: The affirmative doesn’t increase a form of social services, they increase jobs.

C. Standards
1. Limits – Failure to limit the form social service to persons in poverty explodes the topic. The resolution should be interpreted so that affirmative ground is limited. If all the affirmative has to do is provide jobs, which isn’t a form of social service, they could commit to many different forms of action for those in poverty, which make their interpretation of the topic very broad.
2. Ground the resolution should be interpreted to provide a division of negative ground. Making the affirmative expend more resources is the best way to protect the negative’s ground. Plan expands beyond, which allows you to do more things, which gives negative no ground.
  1. Predictability – the resolution should be interpreted in a way so the negative can predict what the affirmative plan will do. This facilitates clash and encourages research.

  1. T is a Voting Issue for Fairness and Education







OFF 2 – Econ DA (1NC as in generic)
OFF 3 – Cap K (Short Shell as in generic)
OFF 4 – Health care Politics (generic 1nc with This Link inserted)
Social spending has always been a divisive issue in Congress- history proves
McClatchy, staff writer, 09 (Steven, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 3-21-09, __http://www.timesdispatch.com/ rtd/lifestyles/health_med_fit/ article/I-SPEN0306_20090319- 210442/236337/__)
Strip away the political finger-pointing over President Barack Obama's proposed budget and the fight boils down to a clash of values. Both major parties are really for big government -- just big in different places. Republicans say they are outraged that Obama would "borrow and spend" his way to a new behemoth government. But they borrowed and spent their way through the 1980s and the current decade. And they love big government -- when it's at the Pentagon. Democrats from Obama on down insist that they don't like big government, that they're just forced into a temporary spending spree by the recession. But Democrats love big government as well, when it's for such social programs as universal health care. "The basic difference between Democrats and Republicans in recent decades is which aspect of government spending they prefer," said Steven Schier, a political scientist at Carleton College in Northfield, Minn. "With the Republicans, it's defense. With the Democrats, it's education, environment, health care, etc. That's been the major difference between the two parties going back to Reagan." The numbers tell the tale. In his eight years, Republican Ronald Reagan increased government spending by 69 percent, led by a 92 percent increase in defense spending as he built up the military to confront the Soviet Union. (These numbers aren't adjusted for inflation.) With the economy growing by the time he left office in 1989, the size of the government as a share of total economic production had shrunk slightly, from 22.2 percent to 21.2 percent. Democrat Bill Clinton increased government spending by 32 percent from 1993 to 2001, brought down largely by the rapid slowdown in defense spending after the Cold War ended. Defense spending grew by just 4 percent during the Clinton years. The combination of restrained growth in government and a booming economy meant that government's size as a percentage of the economy dropped from 21.4 percent to 18.5 percent in the Clinton years.




OFF 5 – Military Recruitment (generic 1nc but replace the generic link with this card)
Low unemployment rate means less troops
Cebula 09
Richard J. Cebula is an economics professor and the Shirley & Philip Solomons Eminent Scholar at Armstrong Atlantic State University Thursday, July 2, 2009 "The Economy & You: Health care and military enlistment" http://new.savannahnow.com/ node/746951

There are economic considerations in the enlistment decision as well. For example, the higher the net financial benefits from enlisting, the greater the incentive to do so. Some people, especially those with a background of poverty, have found the armed forces as a vehicle for escaping that poverty. However, the more prosperous the civilian sector, the less appealing military enlistment becomes. For example, if the civilian unemployment rate is low, it is more difficult to attract recruits. When private sector businesses are booming and salaries are rising rapidly, enlistment becomes a less viable option. Naturally, enlistment is more appealing when


OFF 6 – States CP with solvency card instead of
State outreach programs solve but don’t have adequate funding
Kromm 4-22
(Chris Kromm April 22nd, 2009, Staff Writer for the Institute of Southern Studies’ Facing South, “Getting Counted: States Worried as 2010 Census Nears”)

Getting Counted: States worried as 2010 Census nears With the 2010 Census count looming, states are launching their efforts to make sure everyone gets counted in the decennial survey of the U.S. population. But with threadbare budgets and fast-changing demographics, many states face huge obstacles to making the Census successful. The 2010 Census will be especially important to Southern states. Depending on how the Census count goes, the region stands to gain anywhere from seven to nine Congressional seats and Electoral College votes. A Stateline.org piece today -- based on projections by Election Data Services -- estimates a pickup of eight seats/votes in the South: PROJECTED CONGRESSIONAL SEAT GAINS FROM 2010 CENSUS Florida +1 Georgia +1 North Carolina +1 South Carolina +1 Texas +4 Census data also determines where roughly 85% of over $300 billion in federal grants and aid to states and localities each year -- everything ranging from health care to law enforcement and, this year, stimulus money. According to the U.S. Census Monitoring Board, every Southern state was undercounted in the 2000 Census -- causing each state to lose millions in federal funding. Many Southern states have a disproportionate share of the populations that are historically undercounted in the Census: African-Americans, new immigrants, low-income residents and military families. This year, states face additional hurdles to getting an accurate count and their share of federal funds. The U.S. Census depends on states to be part of the outreach effort to ensure residents get counted -- but with many states facing massive budget shortfalls amidst the economic crisis, outreach efforts are being cut. The federal government has allocated an additional $15 billion to help with Census outreach, but it still might not be enough. Another challenge: Widespread economic dislocation -- from job losses to home foreclosures -- will make tracking down residents even harder. Stateline reports: Families and individuals displaced after losing their homes often become transient and live in rented spaces, group housing or mobile homes -- all major deterrents to returning the mailed survey, according to the Census Bureau. "The recession mess and the foreclosure mess are really changing the dynamic of population movement in the country," [Kimball] Brace [of Election Data Services] said.
TEXT: The 50 states and all relevant territories should substantially increase funding for the outreach programs for the 2010 census.

CASE ARGS:
Warming Turn:
a. Those with higher incomes have higher fossil fuel consumption
Ravilious, contributing editor, 2009
(Kate Ravilious is a contributing editor to environmentalresearchweb. Apr 1, 2009 http:// environmentalresearchweb.org/ cws/article/futures/38530)
Now a new study reveals the increase in appetite for fossil fuels has not been spread evenly across the population. High-income households have ramped up their consumption levels far faster than low income ones. Meanwhile a rapidly expanding leisure and services industry has also guzzled a large share.
Eleni Papathanasopoulou and Tim Jackson of the Research group on Lifestyles, Values and Environment (RESOLVE) at the University of Surrey, UK, found that the gap between the rich and poor has been increasing over time. The highest earners increased their fossil-fuel consumption by 50% between 1968 and 2000, while the lowest earners increased their consumption by only 20% over the same time period. But household income doesn’t tell the entire story. When Papathanasopoulou and Jackson analysed the data in more detail it became clear that spending habits have changed dramatically too. The scientists separated out the data into direct purchases of fuel (gas piped into the home, petrol pumped into the car and electricity flowing down the wires into our houses) and indirect purchases of fuel (the resources required to produce and maintain all other goods and services that we buy). Indirect fossil-fuel resources have seen a surge in demand, particularly by those on higher incomes. “This highlights the increased volume in the purchase of goods and services demanded by households,” Papathanasopoulou told environmentalresearchweb. Exotic holidays, gym memberships and eating out are all more common these days, meanwhile “make-do-and-mend” has gone out of fashion and most of us buy new goods instead.
b. Runaway Global Warming causes extinction
Tickell, Environmental Researcher, 08
(Oliver Tickell, Campaigner and researcher on climate issues and has contributed pieces to a number of major international media outletshttp, 8/11/08, www.guardian.co.uk/ commentisfree/2008/aug/11/ climatechange)
We need to get prepared for four degrees of global warming, Bob Watson [PhD in Chemistry, Award for Scientific Freedom and Responsibility from the American Association for the Advacement of Science] told the Guardian last week. At first sight this looks like wise counsel from the climate science adviser to Defra. But the idea that we could adapt to a 4C rise is absurd and dangerous. Global warming on this scale would be a catastrophe that would mean, in the immortal words that Chief Seattle probably never spoke, "the end of living and the beginning of survival" for humankind. Or perhaps the beginning of our extinction. The collapse of the polar ice caps would become inevitable, bringing long-term sea level rises of 70-80 metres. All the world's coastal plains would be lost, complete with ports, cities, transport and industrial infrastructure, and much of the world's most productive farmland. The world's geography would be transformed much as it was at the end of the last ice age, when sea levels rose by about 120 metres to create the Channel, the North Sea and Cardigan Bay out of dry land. Weather would become extreme and unpredictable, with more frequent and severe droughts, floods and hurricanes. The Earth's carrying capacity would be hugely reduced. Billions would undoubtedly die. Watson's call was supported by the government's former chief scientific adviser, Sir David King [Director of the Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment at the University of Oxford], who warned that "if we get to a four-degree rise it is quite possible that we would begin to see a runaway increase". This is a remarkable understatement. The climate system is already experiencing significant feedbacks, notably the summer melting of the Arctic sea ice. The more the ice melts, the more sunshine is absorbed by the sea, and the more the Arctic warms. And as the Arctic warms, the release of billions of tonnes of methane – a greenhouse gas 70 times stronger than carbon dioxide over 20 years – captured under melting permafrost is already under way. To see how far this process could go, look 55.5m years to the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, when a global temperature increase of 6C coincided with the release of about 5,000 gigatonnes of carbon into the atmosphere, both as CO2 and as methane from bogs and seabed sediments. Lush subtropical forests grew in polar regions, and sea levels rose to 100m higher than today. It appears that an initial warming pulse triggered other warming processes. Many scientists warn that this historical event may be analogous to the present: the warming caused by human emissions could propel us towards a similar hothouse Earth.
2. Local Volunteer Complete Count Committees are available Nationwide for raising awareness of 2010 Census.

U.S. Census Bureau, Complete Count Committees are Forming Nationwide for the 2010 Census, Press Release,
July 24, 2009
__http://www.census.gov/Press- Release/www/releases/archives/ 2010_census/014098.html__
Complete Count Committees (CCC) are forming across the country to spread the word about the importance of the 2010 Census and to motivate every resident in their community to complete and return their 2010 Census questionnaire.Made up of state, local and tribal governments, and/or community leaders, CCCs are one of the core strategic elements of the 2010 Census. Committees often include a cross section of community representatives — including government agencies, education, business, faith-based organizations and the media — and aim to address the various racial, ethnic, cultural and geographic considerations of their communities. Using local knowledge, expertise and influence, CCCs plan and implement census awareness campaigns that address the special characteristics of their communities. Local campaigns are designed to reach traditionally undercounted populations by stressing the importance of an accurate census count, including how data are collected and used. Since the 1980 Census, CCCs have played a major role in raising awareness of the census among all groups and populations through various activities. From now until May 2010, CCCs nationwide are implementing key activities, which often include: Holding events, such as a Census Day “Be Counted” Parade, that generate interest and participation. Distributing census information and materials through Web sites, newsletters and at events. Partnering with organizations in their communities to include census messaging in their communications. A number of CCCs are already in place in cities nationwide, and more are forming each day.

CCC Community leaders speak the language of the community.
U.S. Census Bureau, Complete Count Committees Press Kit, Page 7, no date given http://2010.census.gov/ 2010census/pdf/ CompleteCountCommitteesEPK.pdf ;
An integral part of achieving a complete and accurate count in the 2010 Census is identifying, communicating and inspiring hard-to-count groups to participate. One of the most strategic and effective ways is through the creation of CCCs, especially Community CCCs. Community CCCs are teams of community leaders that speak the language of their community, and utilize local knowledge, expertise and influence to design and implement a census awareness campaign targeted to inspire others to take action and participate in the 2010 Census. Community CCCs have the local knowledge and the ability to focus on potential problem areas such as populations speaking languages other than English, low response rates, high number of renters, and other hard-to-count groups. The knowledge and expertise then leads to the development of innovative activities geared to specific groups within the community
1. Combination of lack of language proficiency and distrust of all government activities contribute to recurrent under count.

Williams 4/27; Jennifer D. Williams, Specialist in American National Government; The 2010 Decennial Census: Background and Issues; Page 9; April 27, 2009

Many households consist of racial and ethnic minorities; multiple families; low income persons; inner-city residents; those whose living circumstances are atypical; international migrants to the United States who may lack English language proficiency, lack legal status in this country, or distrust all governmental activities; or various combinations of these attributes. Any of them can make enumeration difficult, and some of them contribute markedly to the recurrent under count of racial and ethnic minorities.

1.) Illegal immigrants shouldn’t be considered to ensure adequate financial aid, they benefit from social service benefits, but never make contributions to programs’ budgets.
Slobodan Djajić, Illegal Immigration and Resource Allocation; **__International Economic Review__**, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Feb., 1997), pp. 98-99
Rapid growth in the number of illegal immigrants and their participation in the underground economies of the U.S.A. and Europe has stimulated a lively debate over the economic consequences of undocumented immigration. It is argued that the illegal foreign workers displace low-skilled natives, depressed wages, and neutralize market pressures that would otherwise result in a rising trend of wages. In addition, it is said that the availability of unskilled legal and illegal migrants lowers the pace of structural adjustment and technological progress, reducing the economy's competitiveness in the international market (Harrison 1992). If capital is mobile across sectors, illegal immigration may draw capital to the underground economy, depriving the rest of the economy of capital and causing it to stagnate (Ichino 1992). Illegal aliens are also said to draw benefits from the host country’s social programs without always making the corresponding contribution to the programs’ budgets.


MAY NOT GET TO ALL DEFENSIVE ARGS ON CASE